Anechoic black (e.g., liquid being injected)
Anistropy signal changes based on the angle of the probe (something "anistropic" may appear different depending on the angle you are at)
Anterior near field (near the top of the screen, superficial)
Artificts signal interference, often near the skin (which is partly why a stand-off is so valuable in superficial imaging)
Echogenic bright white
Heterogenous irregular appearance
Homogenous uniform appearance

brighter (white)
Ex. 1: tendons (fibrillar pattern)
Ex. 2: the leading edge of bone or calcified structures
Ex. 3: peripheral nerves (relative to muscle)
Ex. 4: a needle or a foreign object

Hypoechoic darker (black)
Ex. 1: muscles (and ligaments when viewed perpendicularly)
Ex. 2: areas of inflammation (where more fluid is present)
Ex. 3: articular hyaline cartilage
Ex. 4: inflamed metatarsal bursa and calcaneal bursa
Ex. 5: ulcerations
Ex. 6: cystic structures
Ex. 7: ruptures and tears of tendons
Isoechoic no change of appearance
Isotropy signal independent of the angle of the probe
Longitudinal sagittal scan along the long axis
Posterior far field (near the bottom of the screen, deep)
Shadowing the “shadow” seemingly cast beyond the cortex of bone, where no ultrasound waves are penetrating (e.g., beyond the edge of the calceneous, or beyond each metatarsal)
Stand-Off gel pad (or probe attachment) used to step the surface of the probe off of the skin by about 1cm, reducing near-field artifacts, and very helpful in superficial imaging and imaging around the ankle (where the surface is irregular)
Transverse frontal scan across the short axis